The Ajrakh block printing of Kachchh, India

Against the dull canvas of the Kachchh desert the rich and bold colours of the textiles are strikingly displayed. The millennia old tradition of weaving and dyeing textiles originated in this Indus Valley region in the North West of India, and is still in abundance today.

 For a typical Kachchhi man or woman, their cloth is an essential everyday commodity and decoration as well as a symbol of their identity. Whether woven, embroidered, printed or tie-dyed, the textiles worn by a person in this area can reveal a multitude of details about their caste, gender, age, religious affiliation, marital status and economic standing.

Musician wearing a chemical dyed ajrakh turban in Bhuj, 2011. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

Musician wearing a chemical dyed ajrakh turban in Bhuj, 2011. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

The highly skilled and patterned ajrakh block-printing (read more about the process here) came to Kachchh from Sind 400 years ago when the Muslim Khatris (artisans who ‘apply colour to cloth’) settled in the village of Dhamadka. In 2001 a devastating earthquake severely damaged Bhuj, Dhamadka and other villages and towns all over the Kachchh region. In the wake of this tragedy, the Khatris were brought closer together and a new village was created to rebuild their lives and their craft production, aptly named Ajrakhpur (‘place of Ajrakh’). Today there are Khatris living and working in both villages.

Indigo dyed cloths drying out in the sun at the edge of Ajrakhpur village

Indigo dyed cloths drying out in the sun at the edge of Ajrakhpur village. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

Almost the whole village takes part in the block printing, and on entering, this is immediately obvious, with bright indigo, green and mustard yellow cloths drying out in one area and men whacking wet cloths at the washing ghats at another.

washing ajrakh cloths in Dhamadka village. Photograph by Ruth Clifford

washing ajrakh cloths in Dhamadka village. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

The constant sound of the wooden block being stamped with force onto the table echoes in the workshop and sounds almost like a heart beating. It is the sound that the craft is still going strong. Despite environmental disasters, the widespread industrialisation of the twentieth century and the changing political regimes, the traditional craft of ajrakh, its long and skilled process and complex geometric designs has survived.

A key figure in this preservation of ajrakh is the late Khatri Mohammed Siddique, who realised the new emerging markets for hand-crafted textiles. He revitalised the traditional use of natural dyes when realising its appeal amongst Western markets, and passed the knowledge onto his three sons Ismail, Razzaq and Jabba.

This survival and revitalisation of block printing along with embroidery, bandhani and other crafts of this region has also been stimulated by the various government initiatives, NGOs, textile companies and individual designers. Local school Kala Raksha Vidhyalaya (KRV) is one of the first of its kind, teaching rural artisans design and marketing skills. Many of the young generation of block printers have studied here and have gone on to be very successful.

The boys in Ajrakhpur and Dhamadka learn block printing from their fathers at the age of between ten and fifteen when they finish school. Often they are also natural entrepreneurs. With the marketing and contemporary design skills added, their opportunities are vast.

Visiting Ajrakhpur today, one can experience the buzz of new ideas happening amongst the young block-printers as they experiment with new designs but while also being sensitive to their own families’ traditions. This has made them into designers in their own right, as well as skilled artisans.

Khatri Junaid, grandson of Mohammed Siddique, created a successful final contemporary collection for his course at Kala Raksha Vidhyalaya – so successful that the whole collection sold during the graduation exhibition. He experimented with different combinations of blocks and placement of colour. Using traditional designs he added new colours to give a more contemporary look. His final collection was based on the theme of Kudrat – life and creation. Another collection was based on a sea theme and inspired by an observation he’d made that ‘patterns in the shell look like the sea’.

Junaid's final collection exhibited at the KRV final show. Photo courtesy of Judy Frater

Junaid’s final collection exhibited at the KRV final show. Photo courtesy of Judy Frater. Photographer: Ketan Pomal

Khatri Irfan Anwar won an award for his collection for ‘most marketable’ at KRV. He had pushed the boundaries of traditional ajrakh by randomly printing the blocks onto a stole of mashroo fabric to create an elegant, unique piece. This could be controversial to many of the older ajrakh artisans as it rejects the use of symmetry, a practice traditionally synonymous with ajrakh art.

Ajrakh's final collection on the catwalk at the KRV convocation. Photo courtesy of Judy Frater

Irfan’s final collection on the catwalk at the KRV convocation. Photo courtesy of Judy Frater. Photographer: Ketan Pomal

Khatri Sale Mohammed is experimenting with colour and instead of using the traditional shades of indigo, green, red, black and white, he has mixed alum and iron together to create a new grey/green colour. He has also used a traditional composition layout but incorporated his own contemporary designs into this.

A skirt by Khatri Sale Mohammed for his final KRV collection. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

A skirt by Khatri Sale Mohammed for his final KRV collection. Photograph: Ruth Clifford

Many of the artisans sell internationally and have shown their work in renowned exhibitions. The project ‘Resurgence’ which was also an exhibition gave them a chance to tell their stories of the earthquake and help them deal with the tragedy. More recently some took part in ‘New Voices New Futures, stories of sustainability’ to illustrate their ideas for creating a more sustainable craft practice.

In the face of climate change and globalisation, there is a rising trend for all things hand-made, eco-friendly and an awareness of a product’s origin and culture. Such trends and awareness are sustaining the Khatris’ livelihoods and helping to preserve their long standing heritage. Let’s hope these are not just fleeting fashions and that the Khatris will continue to provide the world with a fascination for highly skilled, hand-crafted textiles for many generations to come.

 Places of Interest:

Dr. Ismail Mohammed Khatri (son of Mohammed Siddique) in Ajrakhpur invites tourists to come and stay with his family and learn the craft of ajrakh

Address: Ajrakhpur. Post: Kukma, Bhuj, Kachchh 370105, Gujarat, India.

KALA RAKSHA– headquarters, shop and museum

Address: Parkar Vas, Sumrasar Sheikh: Ta Bhuj, Kutch 370 001, India





  1. We would love to have your article in our E-publication SAMVAAD. Do contact us on email or call/sms 8469968811

    Look forward for further communication.


    • Hi aVni, thanks for your comment. I have actually been asked if this can be published in My batik magazine – by the editor, to which I’ve accepted. However, I can write a variation of this for your e-publication if you’d like?

  2. Pingback: The process of ajrakh block printing according to Ismail Mohammed Khatri, Ajrakhpur

  3. Ajrakh is a nice piece of art practiced in local villages of Bhuj and Kutch. Ajrakhpur is famous for this art and its tremendously displayed in the culture exhibited there.Jewellery is also an important part of there lives.To purchase jewellery in Delhi, contact Sirjana Signature Jewellery.

  4. Stumbled upon your travel stories while researching for Bhuj weavers and ajrakhpur printers. So informative and helpful, comes at the right time when I plan to visit these places in January next year.. I m enjoying reading every article , every story and it feels like I m already there. Thank you.

    • Thanks for your comment Preeti. Really good to hear you’re enjoying reading my articles. You will love visiting these places. Good luck with your travels, and let me know if you need any help or tips, Ruth

  5. I found your article while looking for information on the Patan Patola. I’m so happy I did because I got a better idea and explanation of what we saw in Ajrakhpur and Patan last week. I’m now going to read all the rest of your articles !
    I do plan on revisiting Kutch and Patan after Ive done some research and study.
    Thank you for sharing the information.

  6. The entire blog series on Kutch textiles is wonderful. I am traveling there soon and found this information extremely helpful. thank you.

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